Agronomy

February 2012

Maximising winter feed production before it’s too late!
 

With the onset of cooler autumn conditions approaching, it is timely to think about the winter feed demands of your livestock & how that might be best met. There are several options, including supplementation with hay, silage and/or grain, however one of the most cost effective methods is to grow more grass with the strategic use of additional fertilizer/growth promotants.

Urea

Urea (containing 46% Nitrogen) can be used at strategic times during the year in a very cost effective manner to produce additional winter feed. Whilst pasture legumes fix ‘free’ Nitrogen (N) during the warmer months of the year, once soil temperatures fall below 10 oC, clover growth ceases, as does N fixation – as a result, our soils typically experience a deficit of available N during April-August. An application of N prior to the onset of these conditions can improve herbage mass leading into a period of expected N deficiency. In addition, urea can be used to supply additional N to maximize spring hay production.

When choosing a paddock for urea, select areas with the following attributes:
1. High levels of improved pasture species, such as ryegrass (in particular), phalaris & cocksfoot;
2. Good history of Superphosphate use – there is no point in applying N to boost pasture growth if Sulphur or Phosphorus is lacking;
3. Good soil moisture levels, but avoid areas prone to waterlogging;
4. Low weed burden;
5. Avoid light textured soils prone to leaching.

Urea may be applied to pastures anytime from May-September, depending on when the additional feed is required. Feed responses to N typically occur 4-6 weeks after topdressing. Do not graze within 2-3 weeks of application due to the potential for nitrate poisoning of livestock at this stage.

The most effective rates of urea are typically 85 kg/ha (or 35 kg N/ha) to increase winter pasture production. Apply to pastures with re-growth of around 1500 kg Dry Matter (DM)/ha (4-5 cm height). Do not allow pastures to become rank¸ as these pastures will become inefficient at using the applied N. Avoid application of N fertilizer for more than 2 years, as pastures tend to become grass dominant.

Typical increases of 400-500 kg DM/ha from strategic N applications have been been found in pastures. This equates to a cost of around 9c/kg DM produced (compared to the cost of hay/silage at 30 c/kg produced) making the use of urea on pastures a very economical method of increasing the supply of winter feed for your livestock.

ProGibb SG

In addition to urea, ProGibb SG offers an alternative option for increasing winter feed. Essentially a naturally occurring hormone (40 % gibberellic acid), ProGibb was originally sold into the horticultural market to promote desirable harvest effects (e.g. fruit thinning, elongation and ripening in grapes and citrus). However, it was also found to promote cell elongation, division and hence, DM production in pasture grasses in winter, due to low production of gibberellic acid during the colder winter months. In summary:

1. Application rates vary from 10 g ProGibb/ha + 10 mL Active 1000/100 L for phalaris–based pastures up to 20 g/ha + wetter for ryegrass and cocksfoot pastures which are less responsive.
2. Apply 100 L/ha of spraymix by boomspray;
3. A pasture base of at least 1000 kg DM/ha is recommended before application;
4. Apply only to pastures which are at least 12 months old;
5. as with urea, grass species are more responsive to ProGibb than broadleaf or clover species;
6. typical response of an additional 500-700 kg DM/ha (similar to urea) have been recorded with no loss in feed quality;
7. response can be seen within 7 days, lasting about 21 days (subject to adequate soil moisture and nutrients). In comparison, responses to urea will take 2-3 weeks, with the peak in response occurring 6-8 weeks after application;
8. ProGibb can also be used in combination with urea for a greater growth response. The two products applied together have a synergistic effect;
9. After application, rest the paddock for up to 21 days. You can then follow up with a further application every 3-4 weeks after the initial application to maximise winter growth of selected paddocks on the farm;
10. Best results when ambient temps are 6-15 oC (e.g. June-August). Application during heavy frosty periods should be avoided;
11. Very cost competitive @ approx. $1/g or up to $20/ha + application costs, compared to urea @$70/ha + spreading;
12. It is an organically certified product with a nil grazing withholding period.
13. can be tank mixed with insecticides & selected herbicides.

For further information on strategic fertilizer and ProGibb use for increased winter pasture growth, call Landmark Daniel Walker today to arrange an on site appraisal of your situation with their consulting agronomist Roger Garnsey.
 

January 2012

Maintaining a weed free fallow over summer

The recent rainfall has resulted in an increase in the summer weeds now starting to germinate in sprayfallow paddocks intended for crop/pasture establishment next year. It is important to ensure that these summer growing perennial (e.g. couch) and annual weeds (black stinkgrass, hairy panic) do not extract valuable soil moisture & nutrients over the summer period.

Early control of summer weeds in fallow paddocks is vital; as weeds increase in size & density, maturing plants tap into soil moisture from a greater depth. In addition, sowing may be impeded next autumn if summer weeds are not controlled.

Benefits

Whilst soil moisture in the top 20-30 cm can be lost over summer due to evaporation, the removal of summer weeds allows any soil moisture below 30 cm depth to be stored for next year’s crop.
Research by the Grains Research & Development Corporation has clearly shown the economic benefits associated with summer weed control in fallows – for every 1$ spent on summer weed control, a return of $3 can be expected in terms of higher grain yield alone. Logically, in years of average rainfall, the benefits of maintaining a clean summer fallow is less than in dry springs.

Herbicide mixes

Clearly glyphosate will form the basis of most herbicide mixes for summer weed control. However various mixing partners may be needed to improve the control of some hard-to-kill summer weeds. The following table provides information on the relative performance of a range of herbicides on several common summer weeds.

Weed susceptibility chart

Fallow weeds Abound 400 (2,4-D) Ally 2,4-D Amine Garlon 600. Glyphosate Goal Lontrel 750 Starane
Bathurst burr *** ** ** x *** *** x ***
Blackberry nightshade ** ** ** ** ** ** x **
Caltrop *** *** ** x *** *** x **
Camel/Afghan melons ** ** ** *** ** ** x x
Couch grass * x x x ** ** x x
Cudweed ** ** ** x ** ** ** **
Fathen *** ** ** x ** *** x x
Fleabane ** ** ** x ** ** ** **
Goosefoot *** ** ** x ** ** x -
Heliotrope *** ** + roundup ** ** + roundup x x x **
Marshmallow ** ** ** x ** *** x ***
Paddy melon ** ** ** *** ** ** x *
Red pigweed ** ** ** x ** ** ** ***
Prickly lettuce ** *** ** ** ** ** ***+ MCPA ***
Skeleton weed *** *** ** x ** ** ***+ MCPA -
Wireweed ** *** ** x ** *** x ***+ Ally
*** Good control ** Moderate control * Poor control x No control (source: Dow Agrosciences)

For further information on control of summer weeds in your fallow, contact Landmark Daniel Walker to arrange an inspection of your paddock with their consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey.

December 2011

Big summer rains bring big woody weeds!!

With the high summer rainfall in response to the La Nina conditions, the growth of woody weeds such blackberry, sweet briar & St John’s wort will explode this summer. Blackberry can be mechanically removed, but chemical control offers the most effective results in most cases.

Combinations of glyphosate (Roundup) and metsulfuron methyl (Brushoff) have been used, however improved control is achieved with Grazon, or equivalent generic products on the market (e.g. Nufarm Conqueror). Conqueror will also control other woody weeds, such as St John’s owrt, sweet briar & eucalypt regrowth in one pass.

Trial work conducted on the south coast clearly demonstrated significantly less regrowth when using Grazon/Nufarm Conqueror 12-14 months after herbicide application, compared to Roundup/Brushoff combinations. A rapid’ brownout’ can be seen within a week, whilst persistent soil acitivity means spray runoff will suppress seedling germination with Nufarm Conqueror.

Some quick facts on blackberry control:
• optimal timing for control of blackberry is from December-March (basically when the risk of frost has gone);
• ideally, controlling blackberry with Grazon/Nufarm Conqueror when in flower produces superior results;
• delay blackberry treatment until all regrowth has had time to grow to at least 1 metre in height where plants have been bulldozed, slashed, burnt or ploughed;

Allocate time & resources for a follow-up campaign against blackberry.

Ensure last year’s area treated can be swept over again this year to ensure the area remains clean of blackberry & reinvasion does not occur. Otherwise, you will be simply wasting your time & efforts.

When applying Grazon/Nufarm Conqueror for woody weed control, not only is it important to apply the correct herbicdie rate per 100 L water, but it is vital to apply the right volume of chemical. Just as you need to calibrate for booms praying, spot spraying requires some measurement of water use for optimum results.

There is a huge amount of variation in the volume of chemical applied when spot spraying woody weeds. The following chart provides a guide for the recommended volume of Grazon/Nufarm Conqueror required for dome shaped weeds, such as blackberry.

 For further information on woody weeds, including blackberry, please do not hesitate to contact Landmark Daniel Walker to arrange a consultation with agronomist, Roger Garnsey.

April 2012

Calciprill & Magprill – an alternative option to bulk F70 lime

Many growers are well versed in the use of bulk lime, such as F70 lime, to correct soil acidity. Whilst topdressing with bulk lime is very effective at increasing soil pH, it is a large capital expense in a single year.
However, Calciprill (straight calcium lime) & Magprill (a blend of calcium & magnesium lime) offer the grower an alternative, granulated liming product which can be applied through a standard fertiliser spreader or seed drill. These granulated products have been available in the past, but due to reduced transport costs, the price of these products has reduced substantially. In summary, Calciprill & Magprill offer the following advantages:
• made from a micronized powder which is granulated to make it easy to apply to the pasture or crop without producing clouds of dust;
• immediate pH improvement for reduced soil acidity, with maximum benefit obtained in 3 months. Due to increased fineness, these granulated products have a greater effect on soil acidity w/w than bulk F70 lime;
• more convenient: can be topdressed or drilled with seed;
• apply by ground or air in steep terrain;
• typical application rates of 125-150 kg Calciprill or Magprill/ha to correct soil pH at a cost of around $35/ha spread;
• follow-up applications of Calciprill/Magprill or bulk lime are required to achieve the equivalent liming effect of 2.5 t F70 lime/ha;
• available in bulk, 1 tonne bags or 25 kg bags.
As a result, Calciprill & Magprill offer greater flexibility to the grower. It can be used in the following scenarios:
1. The large expense of applying the entire liming effect to the soil in one year may no longer required as this product offers a means of spreading the cost over several years.
2. If the soil is marginally acidic at the surface, but soil pH improves with depth, Calciprill & Magprill can be drilled with the seed to assist in the initial establishment of the pasture in a hostile acidic environment. However, once established, the plants root system can extend to the more favourable subsoil without the need for a major upfront liming cost of 2.5 t/ha.
3. Establish pasture in an acidic soil with 125 kg Calciprill or Magprill/ha @$35/ha, & follow-up each year thereafter with 125 kg/ha until Year 5-6. This will produce a similar improvement in soil acidity to a single application of 2.5 t F70 lime/ha at less overall cost;
4. These products can be topdressed in the same pass as Superphosphate.
For further information on this convenient product, please contact Landmark Daniel Walker or Roger Garnsey on 0429 625880.

 

April 2013

New Roundup Attack producing superior results
Roundup Attack with IQ inside was released by Nufarm in 2012 as a replacement for Roundup Power Max, offering the following advantages over other standard glyphosate products:
·         shorter rainfast period (20 minutes);
·         improved built-in surfactant, with a patented penetrator which breaks down the waxy coating of hard to kill weeds. The improved surfactant in Roundup Attack results in a more complete weed kill with faster brown out, better final control on hard-to-kill weeds such as fleabane as well as quicker herbicide uptake by weeds;
·         time to sowing after spraying with Roundup Attack: reduced to one hour;
·         reduced application rates, as Roundup Attack contains 570 g glyphosate/L, compared to 540 g/L for Roundup Power Max;
·         improved compatibility: in particular, with Amicide Advance 700. This herbicide combination results in improved knockdown of hard to kill weeds, such as fleabane, prior to sowing.
 
Getting the best out of mixing Roundup Attack with Amicide Advance 700
Correct mixing order:
The use of Roundup Attack with Amicide Advance 700 is proving to be a robust herbicide mix for control of hard to kill weeds, so much so a separate section has been included on the Roundup Attack label for mixing with Amicide Advance 700. However, when mixing these two herbicides, a common mistake can be to overload the tank with product as it is filling. To avoid this, always follow the correct mixing order & agitation methods as shown in the following table:

Step 1

Fill the spray tank to 70% full & run agitation.

Step 2

Add any water conditioners e.g. Liaise or other ammonium sulphate products

Step 3

Add and Water Dispersible Granules (WDG) e.g. Diuron 900 WG.
Allow at least 10 minutes for compete dispersion

Step 4

Add any Suspension Concentrate (SC) products e.g. Igran

Step 5

Add any Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC) products e.g. Lorsban

Step 6

Add any Soluble Liquid products e.g. Amicide Advance 700

Step 7

Fill the spray tank to nearly full

Step 8

Add any glyphosate products e.g. Roundup Attack

Step 9

Add any adjuvants e.g. LI700 & fill the tank

Water application rate
In addition, as the table shows below, ensure you use a minimum of 70 L spraymix/ha when combining Roundup Attack with Amicide Advance 700. If the water rate is too low when products are added, a high concentration is formed & products can ‘drop out’ in this situation, causing nozzle blockages.

Roundup Attack with IQ inside

Amicide Advance 700

L/ha

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0-1.2

0.8

50+

50+

60+

70+

1.0

50+

50+

60+

70+

1.2

50+

50+

60+

70+

1.4

50+

50+

60+

70+

1.8

50+

50+

60+

70+

>1.8

70+

70+

70+

100+

For further information on the use of Roundup Attack, please do not hesitate to contact our consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey through Landmark Daniel Walker on 02 48 422405.

April 2014

Maximising Italian ryegrass production this winter
Following the recent autumn rainfall, a significant amount of Italian ryegrass has been sown in the Braidwood area. Growers have been very prudent in their response to these ideal seasonal conditions for timely ryegrass establishment.
 
It is important to obtain the greatest production
(& therefore payback) from this significant pasture investment. With the onset of the colder months, soil Nitrogen often becomes limiting as soil microbial activity (& therefore Nitrogen turnover) declines. Whilst pasture legumes fix ‘free’ Nitrogen during the warmer months of the year, once soil temperatures fall below 10 oC, clover growth ceases, as does Nitrogen fixation – as a result, our soils typically experience a deficit of available Nitrogen during April-August. To supply additional Nitrogen to ryegrass, fertilising with a Nitrogen-rich fertiliser makes sound economic sense.
 
Nitrogen Fertilisers
There are a number of Nitrogen-based fertilizers available on the market, however it is important to use products with a proven track record containing high levers of Nitrogen. For example, Urea (containing 46% Nitrogen) can be used in a very cost effective manner to produce additional winter feed.  Responses from urea from application in winter range from 300-800 kg additional dry matter/ha. The most effective rates of urea are typically 85 kg/ha (or 35 kg N/ha) to increase winter pasture production. Apply to pastures with re-growth of around 1500 kg Dry Matter (DM)/ha (4-5 cm height). Do not allow pastures to become rank¸ as these pastures will become inefficient at using the applied Nitrogen. Avoid application of Nitrogen fertiliser for more than 2 years, as pastures tend to become grass dominant.
 
Preliminary field trials conducted in the Braidwood area last year with the new line of Loveland products (available exclusively through Landmark), including Maximum N Pact  (containing 24% Nitrogen) produced some very encouraging results. Application of Maximum N Pact (at 10 L/ha) & Nutrisync M (at 365 mL/ha) to a phalaris-based perennial pasture in 2013 outperformed both gibberellic acid & liquid Nitrogen fertilizer (UAN). The combination of Maximum N Pact & Nutrisync M resulted in an extra 110% winter forage grown. Further trials will be conducted with these products on Italian ryegrass, but the initial findings are encouraging.
 
Remember, when choosing a ryegrass paddock for Nitrogen fertilizer topdressing, ensure:

  1. High levels of improved pasture species, such as ryegrass (in particular),
  2. Good history of Superphosphate use – there is no point in applying N to boost pasture growth if Sulphur or Phosphorus is lacking;
  3. Good soil moisture levels, but avoid areas prone to waterlogging;
  4. Low weed burden;
  5. Avoid light textured soils prone to leaching.

 
Dry matter responses to Nitrogen fertilizer, such as urea & Maximum N Pact are quick - typically 4-6 weeks after topdressing. Do not graze within 2-3 weeks of application due to the potential for nitrate poisoning of livestock at this stage.
 
ProGibb SG
In addition to urea, ProGibb SG offers an alternative option for increasing winter feed.  Essentially a naturally occurring hormone (40 % gibberellic acid), ProGibb was originally sold into the horticultural market to promote desirable harvest effects (e.g. fruit thinning, elongation and ripening in grapes and citrus).  However, it was also found to promote cell elongation, division and hence, DM production in pasture grasses in winter, due to low production of gibberellic acid during the colder winter months.  In summary:

  1. Application rates: 20 g/ha + wetter for ryegrass
  2. Apply 100 L/ha of spraymix by boomspray;
  3. A pasture base of at least 1000 kg DM/ha is recommended before application;
  4. Apply only to pastures which are at least 12 months old;
  5. as with urea, grass species are more responsive to ProGibb than broadleaf or clover species;
  6. typical response of an additional 500-700 kg DM/ha (similar to urea) have been recorded with no loss in feed quality;
  7. response can be seen within 7 days, lasting about 21 days (subject to adequate soil moisture and nutrients).  In comparison, responses to urea will take 2-3 weeks, with the peak in response occurring 6-8 weeks after application;
  8. ProGibb can also be used in combination with urea for a greater growth response. The two products applied together have a synergistic effect;
  9. After application, rest the paddock for up to 21 days.  You can then follow up with a further application every 3-4 weeks after the initial application to maximise winter growth of selected paddocks on the farm;
  10. Best results when ambient temps are 6-15 oC (e.g. June-August).  Application during heavy frosty periods should be avoided;
  11. Very cost competitive @ approx. $1/g or up to $20/ha + application costs, compared to urea @$70/ha + spreading;
  12. It is an organically certified product with a nil grazing withholding period.
  13. can be tank mixed with insecticides & selected herbicides.

 
For further information on strategic fertilizer and ProGibb use for increased winter pasture growth, call Landmark Daniel Walker today to arrange an on site appraisal of your situation with their consulting agronomist Roger Garnsey.

August 2012

The performance of alternative fertilisers compared to Single Super
The performance of alternative fertilisers compared to more traditional fertilisers (such as Single Superphosphate) is often keenly debated in agricultural circles. It is therefore exciting to report that an independent assessment of a range of fertilizer products has recently been conducted by Fiona Leech of NSW DPI, Yass. The replicated trial began in 2009, covering nine fertiliser treatments, including Single Superphosphate, Agri-ash, Trio-min/Eco-min Balance, pig manure, Groundswell compost, YLAD Compost Mineral Blend, YLAD Bio TX 500 Compost tea extract, BioAg Blend & Ecology Fluid Fertiliser. Products were topdressed onto native perennial/clover pastures, in accordance with directions from each fertilizer company involved in the trail; some products were applied annually, whilst others were applied every three years (e.g. Agri-ash, pig manure, Groundswell compost). The project sites consisted of three native perennial pasture sites in the Binalong & Bookham areas of the southern Tablelands of NSW. Spring pasture herbage mass & soil nutrient measurements were collected over three years (2009, 2010 & 2011).
Dry matter responses:
Statistical analysis of the spring herbage mass showed the following major trends:
1. Products that delivered substantial amounts of Phosphorus & Sulphur produced the most amount of spring feed. This included Single Superphosphate, Agri-ash, pig manure, YLAD Compost mineral blend and, to a lesser extent BioAg Blend & Ecology Fluid Fertiliser. Trio-min/Eco-min Balance, Groundswell compost & YLAD Compost tea did not significantly increase spring herbage mass over the control.
2. Of the fertilizer products that consistently increased spring herbage mass over the three years, Single Superphosphate, Agri-ash & pig manure were the most cost effective; the cost of YLAD Compost mineral blend was 2-7 times more for the additional pasture grown.
Soil nutrient status:
The application of the various fertilizer treatments did not reveal a clear relationship between increases in pasture production & soil nutrient levels. In summary:
1. soil Phosphorus (P) levels were increased significantly by Single superphosphate at one site, whilst pig manure & Agri-ash increased P levels at 2 of the 3 sites at various times during the trial. This soil nutrient response is to be expected due to the high quantities of P applied with Agri-ash (around 30 kg soluble P/ha + 100 kg insoluble P/ha) & pig manure (40 kg total P/ha) compared to the other treatments (e.g. Single Superphosphate supplies 10 kg soluble P/ha).
2. Fertiliser products containing lime (i.e. Agri-ash, YLAD compost mineral blend & BioAg blend) increased soil pH & lowered Aluminium% as expected.
Effects on soil biological activity
None of the fertilizer products applied had a significant effect on soil biology levels measured over the three years of the trial.
It is expected that this valuable, independent trial is expected to be ongoing for the next two years. Full details of the experimental trial results are available from the Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of The Grassland Society of NSW (2012).
For further information on the most appropriate fertilizer choice for your situation, contact Landmark Daniel Walker to arrange an appointment with their consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey.

August 2013


BioAg fertiliser: a viable alternative option for topdressing pastures

BioAg, based at Narrandera in the Riverina, produces a range of rock Phosphate & liquid fertiliser products for the agricultural market. Of particular relevance to the Braidwood area are two products, BioAg Superb & BioAgPhos S10, which offer a viable, cost effective alternative to Single Superphosphate for topdressing pastures. The advantages of each of these products are outlined below:
BioAg Superb
Table 1: The comparison of Single Superphosphate and BioAg products

Nutrient Single Superphosphate BioAg Superb BioAg Superb
Phosphorus 8.8 8 11
Calcium 20 27 32
Sulphur 11 5 10

 
BioAg Super is a blend of BioAgPhos (a reactive phosphate rock that has been treated with a microbial culture to increase solubility) & gypsum, resulting in an analysis comparable to Single Super (refer Table 1). Unlike conventional fertilisers, BioAg Superb provides an immediate & slowly available source of plant-available Phosphorus, as well as Sulphur for clover growth. It is not water soluble so it is not leached or ‘locked up’ as readily as conventional fertilisers. Around a third of the 8% Phosphorus in BioAg Superb is immediately available for plant use, whilst the remainder is slowly digested by soil microbes. This product is not granulated & needs to be applied using a belt spreader.
BioAgPhos S10
BioAgphos S10 comprises 90% BioAgPhos & 10% elemental Sulphur. However, the Sulphur is treated with microbes for rapid digestion & improved plant availability. As a result, this product is ideally suited to soils low in both Phosphorus & Sulphur. With the recent heavy rain in the Braidwood district, it reinforces the advantages of having a product containing Sulphur that will not readily leach, such as BioAgPhos S10.
Field trials demonstrate the value of rock phosphate products
Trial work on these rock phosphate products is encouraging – an 8 year trial conducted by NSW DPI near Orange showed a greater pasture response from using rock phosphate products compared to Single Super. These rock phosphate products work best under high rainfall, acid soil conditions – an ideal fit for the Braidwood area. Further work is currently being conducted on alternative fertilsers, including BioAg, by NSW DPI at Yass – initial results are encouraging, however the trial is expected to continue for another 3 years which will provide sound data on the performance of alternative fertilisers locally. For further information on these exciting new range of fertiliser products, call Roger Garnsey or Richard Walker at Landmark Daniel Walker.

December 2012

 Preventing haystack fires
Haystacks can self-ignite when excessive heat builds if the moisture content of hay is too high. Complex biological, chemical & physical reactions influence heating in hay. Biological respiration of the plant material, combined with bacterial/fungal activity cause initial heating (up to 70 oC). This can lead to a buildup of flammable chemicals which ignite when exposed to air. Spontaneous ignition can occur anytime from two weeks to three months after baling.
 
Checking the haystack commonly occurs with a crowbar or temperature probe. Other signs of heating include steam rising from haystacks, condensation or corrosion under hayshed roofing, mould growth in bales, slumping of the haystack & unusual odours.

 

 

To avoid this risk, ensure hay is fully cured at the recommended moisture content before baling. This varies depending on crop type & the type of bales used. Due to their large volume & surface areas, large square (<14 % moisture content) & round bales need lower moisture content (14-18 % moisture content) than small bales (18-20% moisture content). In particular, test the nodes & heads inside leaf sheaths for hidden moisture, especially for cereal hay. These parts of the plant are the last to cure. A fully cured stem splits cleanly in half on both sides. For legumes, scrape your thumbnail along the stem. If a strip of the stem or the colour peels off, the plant is not cured. Also check the shed for leaking roofs & spouts. The table below shows some simple field observations to assess the moisture content of hay. 

Field test to check moisture content (%) of hay
Moisture content Observation
50-60 Little or no surface moisture. Leaves limp. Juice shows on stems or leaves if rubbed or pressed hard.
40-50 No surface moisture. Parts of leaves are brittle. Moisture seen in stems twisted in a small bundle, but hay still tough.
30-40 Leaves begin to rustle. No sign of moisture unless rubbed very hard. Moisture shows in stems scratched with fingernail, or less easily, when twisted in the hands. Loosing toughness.
25-30 Hay rustles. A bundle twisted in the hands breaks with difficultly; little sign of moisture. Thick stems may show moisture if scrapped or spilt open with a fingernail.
20-25 Hay rustles readily; stems snap when twisted. Leaves may shatter. Few moist stems. Nodes or joints are shriveling. The bark on stems cant be raised with a fingernail.
15-20 Hay fractures easily. Bundles snap easily when twisted. Diffiuclt to see any moisture. Leaves shatter readily.

 
For further information, please do not hesitate to contact our consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey through Landmark Daniel Walker on 02 48 422405.

December 2013

Chicory blends show promise
Chicory is a perennial forage herb characterised by high nutritional quality & high acid tolerance (up to 25% Aluminium) compared to lucerne. Chicory has the potential to produce high dry matter yields from spring to late autumn.
 
More recently, this nitrogen soaking herb has been used with mixes of Nitrogen fixing clover & lucerne with encouraging results. A recent trial in Victoria showed a 10t DM/ha advantage over two years when growing chicory/lucerne mixes compared to conventional perennial grass/clover systems.
 
Key benefits of chicory/legume mixes include:
• Reduction in ‘red gut’ in lambs, compared to pure lucerne;
• Excellent drought tolerance with a deep tap root;
• Provides high quality feed throughout summer responding well to summer rain and/or irrigation due to a combination of 18% NDF & 13 MJ ME/kg DM. In comparison, lucerne is around 40% NDF & 10 MJ ME/kg DM;
• Highly palatable and doesn’t cause bloat;
• Recovers quickly after grazing;
• Is an excellent source of potassium and magnesium for animals;
• Good disease resistance and insect tolerance;
• Can be used for silage production as part of the pasture mix;
• Responds well to Nitrogen fertilizer application.
 
Varieties
Two main options are available:
1.        Winter active: Punter, Grunter, Balance, Chico, Choice & Grouse. These varieties are more vegetative with good winter activity & regeneration from seed. Winter actives compete strongly against weeds & can be easily established (even by topdressing). However, due to their higher crown, the winter actives are more prone to overgrazing. Their persistence is less than the winter dormants, however Grunter has a lower crown & has shown improved persistence;
2.        Winter dormant/summer active: Puna, Puna II. These are lower crowned varieties with less winter activity but improved persistence. These varieties will flower more readily over summer than winter active varieties.
 
Chicory offers significant advantages as a short term, highly productive pasture. Consider a chicory/legume mix as an integral part of the fattening enterprises on your property.

 
For further information on the use of chicory mixes in your grazing systems, please do not hesitate to contact our consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey through Landmark Daniel Walker on 02 48 422405.

February 2013

Filling the winter feed gap in the Braidwood area
With the excellent recent late summer rainfall & high stocking rates, Braidwood producers will be looking to provide additional feed this winter to carry their livestock through the colder months. There are a number of options to increase winter feed on hand, as outlined below.
 
1.        Establishing winter active crops early in the season
There are a wide range of winter active crops that can be grown in the Braidwood area to provide additional feed at critical times of the year, including forage brassicas, Italian ryegrass & grazing cereals. Each crop has its own advantages; cereals & forage brassicas sown in early autumn provide a greater amount of early feed than ryegrass, but do not provide late quality spring/summer feed that ryegrass can. In addition, early sown forage brassica crops tend to bolt to head mid spring rather than staying vegetative into summer. These differences in Dry Matter (DM) production from early sowing are reflected in the production figures collected from a trial at Yass in 2007 (refer Figure 1 overleaf).
 
Apart from the differences in DM production, it is also important to remember some of the other factors when choosing a winter active forage crop, as summarised in the following table:

Table 2: Comparison of various winter growing forage crops.

Grazing Cereal Italian ryegrass Forage brassica
1.    Annual crop
2.    More competitive against early weed competition
3.    Some post-emergent weed control options in cereals – less in oats than triticale or wheat
4.    Many varieties are acid toleant
5.    1st grazing: Typically
8-10 weeks after sowing
6.     Provides high quality, early winter feed compared to a ryegrass
7.    Can be cut for hay or silage in spring
8.    Cost of establishment: $80/ha + fertiliser
1.      Can last from 1-4 years, depending on variety
2.      Must be sown into a well prepared paddock (sprayfallowed previous spring) to achieve optimum results
3.    No herbicide options for selective grass control, but broadleaf weeds can be controlled
4.    Acid sensitive: avoid highly acidic soils or apply lime before sowing
5.    1st grazing: Typically 10-12 weeks after sowing
6.     Provides higher quality, late season feed compared to a cereal
7.    Can be cut for hay or silage in spring
8.    Can be sown with additional clovers, chicory or lucerne to provide a year round High Performance Pasture
9.    Cost of establishment: $40/ha (annuals) - $120/ha (2-4 year ryegrasses) + fertiliser (no lime)
1.    Annual crop
2.    Provides a disease break
3.    Must be sown into a well prepared paddock (eg sprayfallowed previous spring) to achieve optimum results
4.    Annual grasses can be effectively controlled in this broadleaf crop
5.    Acid sensitive: avoid highly acidic soils or apply lime prior to sowing.
6.    Provides greater winter DM than a cereal when sown early
7.    1st grazing: 6-12 weeks after sowing
8.    Not for hay or silage in spring – this crop is suitable for grazing only
9.    Cost of establishment: $40/ha + fertiliser (no lime)




2.        Topdressing with fertilizer at strategic times of the year to perennial pastures & crops
Nitrogen (N) fertiliser can be used at certain times of the year with very effective results to increase DM production in pastures. Pasture legumes fix atmospheric N which drives pasture production (of grasses in particular). However, during the colder winter months when soil temperatures drop below 10 oC, clovers stop growing & fixing N. At these times, 85-100 kg Urea/ha can be topdressed onto pastures to increase pasture growth. Timing is critical, typically occurring in late April/early May when soil temperatures are starting to drop. Livestock will not be able to graze these fertilised paddocks for 4-6 weeks after application to avoid the risk of nitrate toxicity. Peak responses to additional N fertiliser applied to pastures can be expected 6-8 weeks after application.
 
Paddock choice is important to get the greatest bang for your buck. Choose a paddock which has the following characteristics:
·         High levels of improved pasture species (particularly grasses such as ryegrass, cocksfoot & phalaris, but not winter dormant fescue);
·         Good fertiliser history – there is no point applying additional Nitrogen to boost pasture growth if Phosphorus and/or Sulphur is limiting growth;
·         Good soil moisture levels, but avoid areas prone to waterlogging;
·         Low weed burden.
 
Typical increases of 400-500 kg DM/ha can be expected from Urea applications in early autumn as described above. This equates to around 14c/kg DM produced which is very cheap feed compared to the cost of supplementary hay at 30 c/kg DM.
 
3.        Applying gibberellic acid to stimulate pasture growth
Gibberellic acid is a naturally occurring hormone which was originally sold into the horticultural market to promote desirable harvest effects (e.g. fruit thinning, elongation and ripening in grapes and citrus).  However, it was also found to promote cell elongation, division and hence, DM production in pasture grasses in winter, due to low production of gibberellic acid during the colder winter months.  It comes under various tradenames, including Gala & Progibb SG.  As a result, these gibberellic acid products offer an alternative to Urea for producing additional winter feed in perennial pastures and grazing cereal forage crops.  Application rates are typically 10-20 g/ha + 10 mL Active 1000/100 L. Phalaris–based pastures are most responsive to gibberellic acid, followed by cereal crops, ryegrass and cocksfoot.  At around $1/g + application costs, gibberellic acid is very cost competitive to increase winter feed supply. It can also be conveniently applied in combination with most broadleaf weed herbicides & insecticides to provide effective pest control in the one pass.
 
For further information, please do not hesitate to contact our consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey through Landmark Daniel Walker on 02 48 422405.

January 2014

Blackberry trial results
A trial at Braidwood, NSW, was established in March 2013 to demonstrate the effectiveness of several different herbicide treatments against blackberry.
 
Table 1 lists the 5 treatments applied to mature blackberry bushes. These treatments ranged from non-selective glyphosate-based herbicide mixes to selective herbicides, such as Grazon Extra & Grass-up (generic equivalent to the Grazon DS, containing 300g/L TRICLOPYR & 100g/L PICLORAM).
 
Table 1: Treatments applied for control of blackberry in Braidwood 2013

Treatment 1 500 mL Grazon Extra/100 L
Treatment 2 500 mL Grass-up Herbicide/100 L
Treatment 3 500 mL Grass-up Herbicide + 20 g Metsun 600 + 250 mL LI700/100 L
Treatment 4 400 mL Roundup CT + 10 g Metsun 600 + 250 mL LI700/100 L
Treatment 5 400 mL Roundup CT + 20 g Metsun 600 + 250 mL LI700/100 L

 
Results
The effects of the various herbicide treatments on the mature blackberry bushes are shown in the photo below. All treatments resulted in complete brown out of the blackberry bushes six months after application. There was no evidence of regrowth in any of the bushes, regardless of treatment. There was a faster brownout under the Grazon Extra treatment, however this did not result in an improved kill compared to the other treatments in this trial.
 
For further information on woody weed control this summer, please do not hesitate to contact our consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey through Landmark Daniel Walker on 02 48 422405.

July 2012

Pest species to watch out for
The following pests have been reported in a number of pastures and/or crops across NSW & Victoria. In particular, keep a vigilant eye out in establishing crops & pastures:
True & false wireworms: True wireworms have been observed in several barley, oat and vetch paddocks in the Mallee district of Victoria & near Young, NSW. In some cases, they are chewing on the roots of seedlings, causing wilting and plant death in some patches of the paddock. True wireworms are the larvae of several species of Australian native beetles commonly called ‘click’ beetles. The larvae grow between 15-40 mm in length, are soft-bodied, flattened and slow moving. True wireworms feed on underground roots, seeds and stems. True wireworms are largely confined to cereals, although larvae are occasionally reported in pulse crops and canola. Like false wireworms, problems with true wireworms are often associated with stubble retention and trash from previous crops, which is believed to provide a refuge that favours survival and breeding.
False wireworms attack a variety of crops including cereals and canola, and are mostly found in paddocks with high amounts of stubble and trash. The larvae are relatively fast moving, have a pair of prominent spines on the last body segment and vary in colour from cream-yellow to brown-grey.
Canola aphids: Over the last few weeks there have been reports of green peach or cabbage aphids persisting in high numbers on emerging canola crops.
European earwigs: European earwigs are also present in some canola crops around Cootamundra, in the South West Slopes district of New South Wales. Minor levels of damage have been found in some crops, where the earwigs have chewed the margins of cotyledons. European earwigs mainly attack canola, but will also attack cereals, lupins and some legume crops. When feeding they tend to chew the developing seedlings around the stem and slow plant development. The typical appearance of later foliar damage is shredded leaf tips and/or irregular holes in leaves. European earwigs range from 12-20 mm long, are smooth and shiny dark brown in colour with pale yellow legs. It is important to distinguish earwig species in order to make the most appropriate management decision and accurately assess the risk of attack to emerging crop seedlings.
Slaters: high numbers of slaters are suspected as the cause for poor Lucerne seedling germination in a paddock in the Wimmera district of Victoria. Slaters can attack broad-acre crops, and in some instances can cause serious damage. In the past few years, we have received reports of slaters causing damage to cereals, canola, lentils and pastures in New South Wales and Victoria. Feeding results in uneven rasping-type damage that often appears as ‘windows’ of transparent leaf membrane. However, the presence of slaters within a paddock (even in high numbers) does not necessarily mean a pest issue. Slaters typically feed on decaying organic matter and only rarely feed on emerging crop seedlings.
Contrary to common belief, slaters are crustaceans, not insects. They have a hard skeleton on the outside of their bodies and many pairs of jointed legs. Slaters need damp conditions and will die if exposed to open and dry situations. There are no insecticides registered against slaters in broad-acre crops, and reports indicate they are relatively unaffected by foliar sprays of both synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates applied to control other crop establishment pests. There are chemical baits registered for use against slaters in horticulture, and reports suggest some success with chlorpyrifos baits in Western Australia.
Balaustium mites: Balaustium mites have been observed attacking oat plants in Victoria. There are currently no chemicals registered for the control of Balaustium mites. In addition, Balaustium mites are tolerant to a range of insecticides.
Slugs: canola crops have come under attack from slugs following the recent cool temperatures and rainfall. Baiting has continued in many paddocks. Similar situations have occurred in many regions of southern New South Wales this season. Canola has emerged in drying soil conditions and remained at the cotyledon-2 leaf stage for several weeks. Following cooler and wetter conditions, slugs have become active, and once again, begun attacking the susceptible plants before they have had a chance to outgrow the damage.

For further information on these insect pests, or any other insect issues that you may be having, call Landmark Daniel Walker to arrange an appointment with Roger Garnsey.

July 2013

Loveland products to boost pasture growth rates
 
A new range of products from Loveland (an American based company) are available through Landmark Daniel Walker, designed to boost the performance of your crops & pastures. There is a range of Loveland products designed to enhance the growth of the plant as described below. Since introduction into Australia last year, these products have been shown to improve cereal grain quality & yield (up to 20%).  In pastures, responses have been seen when applied to Italian ryegrass & Lucerne. As a result, we are actively trialling these products in the Braidwood area to determine what responses we can expect from this new liquid product range in the local environment.
 
Awaken:
Awaken is a nutritional product (containing 16% Nitrogen & 2% Potassium + chelated micronutrients) designed to improve the vigour & yield performance of crops. Awaken has been shown to improve early growth & vigour in the plant (hence the name), producing a more fibrous & extensive root system. As the name suggests, application of Awaken should occur in the early stages of growth i.e up to mid tillering stage in grasses & cereals, or 4-6 leaf stage in broadleaf crops.
 
NutriSync M & NutriSync D:
The NutriSync products (NutriSync M for monocots for grasses & NutriSync D for dicots or broadleafs) are nutritional liquids designed to enhance plant physiological activities & growth of crops/pastures by improving the uptake & utilisation of nutrients. This is achieved through ‘Inositol’ technology, which remobilises nutrients that are in the plant & redistributes them to critical areas of need. It contains a small amount of Nitrogen as well as the following critical nutrients for plant function:
·         2 % Potassium: regulates sugars, carbohydrate production & storage. Potassium is often in low quantities in the soils around Braidwood;
·         0.02% Boron: required for translocation of sugars, regulates cell division, salt absorption, flowering, fruiting, hormone movement, pollen germination, carbohydrate metabolism, water use & nitrogen assimilation in plants. Boron is often in low quantities in the soils around Braidwood;
·         0.3% Manganese: aids in nitrate & chlorophyll assimilation. Processing of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis.
·         0.07 % Zinc: governs cell wall integrity & is a main contributor to auxin production. Aids in protein synthesis & consumption & regulation of sugars. Plays a role in chlorophyll formation.
Maximum N-Pact
Maximum N-Pact is a foliar applied Nitrogen source, containing 24% Nitrogen which is stable (less prone to losses through leaching or gas formation) & highly compatible. The benefits of Maximum N-Pact include:
·         Increased uptake – 29% better absorption rate than Nitrate Nitrogen;
·         Improved translocation in the plant – 44% better translaminar activity than Nitrate Nitrogen;
·         Reduced volatility & excellent crop safety;
·         Highly compatible – can be applied with fungicides/insecticides
Keep an eye out for further information on this exciting new range of liquid products this year. We will be presenting results from local demonstration trials at our spring field day.

June 2012

Declining sub clover levels in perennial pastures
The use of “Super & Sub”, or topdressing fertiliser with legumes, has been a technique used for decades in the pastoral zones of Australia. During the high rainfall years in the 40’s & 50’s, this technique proved highly successful, however in more marginal autumn starts, topdressing clover seed can be a risky exercise. The seed at the soil surface requires a regular supply of moisture to ensure seed imbibing & germination. More often than not, our autumn rainfall has been hardly reliable in recent memory &, as a result, the technique of topdressing clovers onto the soil surface & expecting reliable germination & establishment has been disappointing in many instances. Results from a topdressing trial in the Monaro in 2008 (presented in table 1) highlight the difficulty in establishing sub clover by this method:
Table 1: Sub clover establishment in the Monaro, NSW under different techniques from a broadcast rate of 8 kg seed/ha (equates to around 120 seeds/m2).
Establishment technique Establishment rate
Topdressing onto soil surface 10 plants/m2
Knockdown herbicide applied prior to topdressing onto soil surface 22 plants/m2
Knockdown herbicide applied prior to direct drilling clover seed 90 plants/m2
No knockdown herbicide applied prior to topdressing onto soil surface 40 plants/m2

The effect of weed control & covering the seed to improve seed:soil contact is clearly evident from this trial. This emphasises the importance of avoiding topdressing clovers into weedy paddocks, & where possible, direct drill or even harrow after topdressing to improve the seed contact with the soil. In marginal autumns, this can mean the difference between a very average result & an acceptable result. For further information on selective control of annual grasses, such as barley grass, this winter, please give Landmark Daniel Walker a call to arrange a chat with their consulting agronomist Roger Garnsey.
 

June 2013

Slow & steady wins the race for Microlaena

Microlaena or Weeping grass is a cool season (C3) tufted perennial grass which produces year round green growth. While it is often not as productive as some of the introduced perennial grasses or short term Italian ryegrasses (producing around 7 t DM/ha compared to 9-11 t DM/ha for Italian ryegrasses), it can produce a high quality feed (15% protein & 9 MJ ME/kg when vegetative)


 
However, microlaena spreads very slowly by seed & short rhizomes under the soil. Weeping grass is a highly competitive species that responds well to increased fertility and moderate-to-heavy grazing while it is actively growing. It is extremely drought tolerant & established in a wide range of soil conditions & soil types. It is ideally grown with a legume species, such as sub clover, which provides additional Nitrogen to the pasture sward. Tall weeping flower heads are produced from summer through to autumn.
 
Recent research results
Recent research by Meredith Mitchell (NSW DPI) has clearly demonstrated the very slow seedling recruitment in microlaena pastures. A Victorian field site supporting a heavy stand of microlaena showed the following reproductive features:
 
1.      Seed production: 800 seeds/m2.
2.      Seed survival: 30% of the seed produced was lost in the first 24 hours after seed dispersal from the seedhead (through foraging ants). Bird predation was eliminated.
3.      Seed bank in the soil: of all the seed contained in the topsoil, only 0.05-0.01% of all seed was microlaena seed.
4.      Seed germination: around 60% in this field trial.
5.      Seedling recruitment: an average of 5 microlaena seedlings/m2 was found in the year after seed drop.
In short, microlaena clearly has a very low reproductive rate for microlaena, from seed production through to seedling recruitment.  This research indicates that while this species may be widespread throughout the Tablelands, it has taken a long period of time to reach the current density that we now observe in native pastures. Once these natives are gone, they are often difficult to reintroduce & may take many years to ‘thicken up’ to a level that growers would consider to be a productive perennial pasture.
 

For further information on perennial pastures, such as Microlaena, please do not hesitate to contact our consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey through Landmark Daniel Walker on
02 48 422405.

March 2012

Typically a weed of northern NSW/Qld, fleabane has spread south under ideal summer rainfall conditions. A few facts on this emerging annual broadleaf weed:

• prolific seeding – up to 85 000 seeds/plant
• seed viability: 37 months on soil surface, up to 80 months when buried;
• zero tillage encourages seed germination – germinates on the soil surface (<1 cm);
• difficult to control when established & can develop resistance to glyphosate;
• optimum temperature for seed germination is around 25 oC – no germination occurs below 10 oC or above 30 oC.

Species of fleabane
There are three main species of fleabane in Australia, namely Conyza bonariensis (flaxleaf fleabane), C. Canadensis (Canadian fleabane) and C. albida (tall fleabane). Of the three species, the most common fleabanes in our local area are Canadian & flaxleaf fleabane.

Flaxleaf fleabane can grow up to 1 m tall and has deeply indented leaves. Its branches often grow taller than the main plant axis. Tall fleabane can grow up to 2 m tall. Its leaves are less indented than flaxleaf fleabane and its branches do not grow taller than the main plant axis.
 

Mature Canadian, tall and flaxleaf fleabane

Mature Canadian, tall and flaxleaf fleabane (L to R)

Control options
Cultivation can aid in the control of fleabane as seed can be buried to reduce further infestation. Many herbicides have good activity on small fleabane (up to 5 cm rosette), but weed control generally declines with most products at the 10-15 cm rosette stage. Therefore early control of small rosettes is important. Amicide (2,4-D), Kamba (dicamba) & Lontrel (clopyralid) provide good selective control of small rosette fleabane, even up to early elongation, but severe sub clover damage can be expected with these herbicides. Glyphosate at high rates can also provide effective control in a fallow situation. A double knock of glyphosate & Sprayseed/Gramoxone can also provide effective control. Diuron in lucerne can also provide effective control with Sprayseed on seedling fleabane.

For further information on fleabane, call Roger Garnsey (ph: 0429 625880) to discuss your individual issues.
 

March 2013

Grazing tolerant lucernes for the Tablelands
With the increasing interest in cross bred lambs, more grazing tolerant lucernes have grown in popularity. To meet this demand, recent research has been undertaken by PGG Wrightson Seeds to investigate the grazing tolerance of various common & new lucerne varieties. The results from this trial work are presented below.
Trial design
20 lucerne varieties covering a range of winter activity ratings were established at Ballarat (Vic) in 2006. In this field experiment, plots were initially subject to 2.5 years of rotational grazing (‘normal management’). The experiment was then continuously grazed for 173 days from late spring to early autumn at a stocking rate equivalent to 50 sheep/ha. This intensity is not considered much more than some farmers would adopt during drought conditions.
Results
By the end of the 173 days, the ground cover of some varieties had significantly declined, but further decline occurred throughout the following winter months when livestock were excluded. The grazing tolerant lines (such as Stamina 5, Stamina GT6 & Venus) persisted better than most standard varieties, even those within the same dormancy category (summarized in Table 1). Stamina 5 was the most persistent variety over the trial, with a 6% decline in stand density over the four years.
 
Table 1: Ground cover percentages per metre row for the pre-grazing (first assessment 7 April 2010) & final assessment (8 September 2010) after continuous grazing (from ‘Proceedings of the NZ Grasslands Association).

Cultivar Winter activity Ground cover %
First assessment (7/4/2010) Final assessment (8/9/2010)
Non-grazing tolerant varieties
Aurora 6 51 23
Australis 9 29 5
Genesis 7 66 28
Hunterfield 6 70 47
Icon 6 38 14
Kaituna 5 76 36
Sardi 7 7 43 20
Grazing tolerant varieties
Stamina 5 5 92 90
Stamina GT6 4 85 61
Venus 6 91 76
PGWS-1 exp line 3 87 67
PGWS-2 exp line 5 89 71
PGWS-3 exp line 6 77 68
PGWS-5 exp line 5 93 82

 
The trial demonstrated that there is a strong correlation between winter dormancy & grazing tolerance i.e. the more winter active varieties are less tolerant to grazing. In addition, other attributes contribute to lucerne persistence under grazing, including deep set crowns, prostrate habit, subsuirface budding, broad crowns, maintenance of leaf area under grazing & root carbohydrates.
 
For further information of grazing tolerant varieties & lucerne establishment, please do not hesitate to contact our consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey through Landmark Daniel Walker on 02 48 422405.

March 2014

Chicory blends show promise

Chicory is a perennial forage herb characterised by high nutritional quality & high acid tolerance (up to 25% Aluminium) compared to lucerne. Chicory has the potential to produce high dry matter yields from spring to late autumn.
 
More recently, this nitrogen soaking herb has been used with mixes of Nitrogen fixing clover & lucerne with encouraging results. A recent trial in Victoria showed a 10t DM/ha advantage over two years when growing chicory/lucerne mixes compared to conventional perennial grass/clover systems.
 
Some of the key benefits of chicory/legume mixes include:
• Reduction in ‘red gut’ in lambs, compared to pure lucerne;
• Excellent drought tolerance with a deep tap root;
• Provides high quality feed throughout summer responding well to summer rain and/or irrigation due to a combination of 18% NDF & 13 MJ ME/kg DM. In comparison, lucerne is around 40% NDF & 10 MJ ME/kg DM;
• Highly palatable and doesn’t cause bloat;
• Recovers quickly after grazing;
• Is an excellent source of potassium and magnesium for animals;
• Good disease resistance and insect tolerance;
• Can be used for silage production as part of the pasture mix;
• Responds well to Nitrogen fertilizer application.
 
Varieties
Two main options are available:
1.        Winter active: Punter, Grunter, Balance, Chico, Choice & Grouse. These varieties are more vegetative with good winter activity & regeneration from seed. Winter actives compete strongly against weeds & can be easily established (even by topdressing). However, due to their higher crown, the winter actives are more prone to overgrazing. Their persistence is less than the winter dormants, however Grunter has a lower crown & has shown improved persistence;
2.        Winter dormant/summer active: Puna, Puna II. These are lower crowned varieties with less winter activity but improved persistence. These varieties will flower more readily over summer than winter active varieties.
 
Herbicide options
As a seedling, there are fewer herbicide options for control of broadleaf weeds in young chicory stands. The hormonal herbicides, including 2,4-DB (e.g. Buttress, Trifolamine) & MCPA can significantly damage young chicory, however alternative options such as Broadstrike, Jaguar, Igran & Raptor are available. Once the chicory is through its first year of establishment, the herbicide options open up as the established tap root provides greater resilience against herbicide damage.
 
Chicory offers significant advantages as a short term, highly productive pasture. For further information on chicory, please do not hesitate to contact our consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey through Landmark Daniel Walker on 02 48 422405.

May 2012

Controlling barley grass in perennial pastures this year
With the excellent autumn break, annual weeds, such as barley grass, will emerge as a major competitor in our pastures this year. Whilst this annual provides valuable winter grazing, it culminates in high seed head production in spring. This causes its own set of problems, as livestock (in particular, sheep) productivity is affected through fleece and eye damage.
Species:
Barley grass originated from the Mediterranean, south-west Europe & parts of Asia. There are four main species of barley grass:
1. Barley grass (Critesion murinum subspecies glaucum & leporinum): this is what farmers will commonly see in pastures & crops;
2. Sea barley grass (Critesion marinum): grows on salt affected areas of grazing land, salty marshes & coastal areas;
3. Critesion hystrix: prefers silty loams & clay soils;
4. Knotted barley grass (Critesion secalinum): a perennial (unlike the other species which are annuals), mainly located in southern Victoria.
Habitat:
Barley grass is predominantly a weed of higher fertility soils. It can compete strongly after a clover/Lucerne phase in an annual pasture system where there is a large build-up of soil Nitrogen – hence its dominance on stock camps. Barley grass can also tolerate conditions of water stress better than many other species &, being an annual, avoids the summer heat. On the other hand, perennial grasses will be selectively grazed over the summer. Combine this with water stress & a decline of perennial pasture density in the sward occurs. This reduces the pasture’s ability to compete with annual weeds, like barley grass, which enables the undesirable annuals to obtain a strong hold.
Control
There are several control options & sometimes the best approach is the adoption of more than one strategy:
1. Chemical control: for established perennial grass/clover pastures consider one of the following:
• Simazine/gramoxone mix after heavy grazing with sheep to reduce pasture to a uniform ‘bowling green’ height. This method provides very reliable results for a broad range of annual grass (including silver grass) & broadleaf weeds (if tank mixed with MCPA) if the paddock is correctly grazed (heavily) prior to herbicide application. Pastures take
6-8 weeks to recover, so winter dry matter production is severely retarded. For use in phalaris/cocksfoot/clover pastures. Reduce herbicide rates in more sensitive tall fescue-based pastures.
• Raptor: provides excellent selective control of barley grass (but only suppression of silver grass) without the need for heavy grazing prior to herbicide application. Raptor will also provide some control of small broadleaf weeds (e.g. erodium, shepherd’s purse, wireweed, mustard weed). Pastures take 6-8 weeks to recover, so winter dry matter production is severely retarded. For use in phalaris/cocksfoot/clover pastures. Raptor is not recommended for application to tall fescue-based pastures as it can severely retard growth.
2. Grazing management: a period of deferred grazing (e.g. during autumn/early winter) is suggested initially which causes the weed to produce fewer tillers with their growing points higher off the ground. Once this has been achieved, apply heavy grazing whereby stock remove the growing point, resulting in tiller death & reduced seed formation. However, grazing pressure must be maintained to minimise the growth of new tillers & more seed heads (particularly in spring which is not always easy!).
REMEMBER: Barley grass is not very hard seeded. So if seed production can be reduced in one year, the amount of barley grass produced in the following year will also be greatly reduced. For further information on selective control of annual grasses, such as barley grass, this winter, please give Landmark Daniel Walker a call to arrange a chat with their consulting agronomist Roger Garnsey.
 

May 2013

Grazing trial experiment highlights principles of pasture management
From July 2000 to December 2006, a pasture trial conducted on the Northern Tablelands has highlighted that the basic principles of pasture management still apply. The following treatments were applied at a moderate scale (53 ha per farmlet) to investigate the influence of increased pasture inputs & grazing management on pasture performance & farm profitability:
·         Farmlet A: higher input system, using a flexible rotational grazing system & Prograze principles over 8 paddocks.
·         Farmlet B, classed as the ‘typical’ farm: moderate level of soil fertility. A flexible rotational grazing system was implemented & Prograze principles over 8 paddocks (as for Farmlet A).
·         Farmlet C: moderate level of soil fertility combined with a more intensive rotational grazing system over 37 paddocks.
The outcomes after 6 years under each treatment can be summarised as follows:

Treatment

Outcome after 6 years of management

Farmlet A

·      As the level of sown perennial grasses rose on this farm, the proportion of warm season grasses declined (due to increased soil fertility & pasture sowing);
·      Increased cool season species, legumes & herbs due to higher Phosphorus levels;
·      Pasture renovation + increased soil fertility increased animal production/head & animal production/ha;
·      Stocking rate was increased under this regime by over 40%;
·      Pasture renovation at a rate of 4% produced optimum economic outcomes over the long term;
·      Sown perennial pastures need to be maintained for long term survival – up to 25 years, through strong legume content/adequate soil fertility, choosing persistent perennial grasses & careful grazing management to avoid overgrazing;
·      Farm A had the highest gross margin but its cash flow was less than Farmlets B or C due to demands on pasture establishment & fertiliser use. However, this Farmlet had potential to be more profitable than the others over the longer term but with a higher level of risk.

Farmlet B

·      Pastures have become degraded, with a greater number of thistles & evidence of more ‘patchy’ grazing;
·      Low legume & protein content in pasture;
·      Best cash flow results for the 6 years – less expenditure on capital & maintenance. However, the question remains - what would happen to farm profitability as pastures continue to declining pastures over a longer period of time?

Farmlet C

·      Improved intestinal worm control;
·      Low legume & protein content in pasture;
·      Retained most of its sown perennial grasses, it showed a similar increase in warm season grasses to that on Farmlet B;
·      Intensive rotational grazing did not increase overall productivity compared to the typical management

Acknowledgements: J. Scott, University of New England. From Grasslands Society of NSW.

November 2012

Pasture variety update
Before pasture sowing gets into full swing again next year, here is a summary of the main perennial grass, herb & clover options available, including some new releases to the Australian market: Mediterranean tall fescue: a more palatable grass than phalaris & cocksfoot when kept in the vegetative phase of growth. Once this plant gets above 10 cm height, its palatability decreases significantly, so maintain grazing pressure to get the most out of this species. Varieties include Charlem, Fletcha, Freydo, Origin, Prosper, Resolute & Medallion. Medallion is slightly later flowering & has a softer leaf than other varieties but similar DM production. However, its persistence is yet to be determined. Continental tall fescue: These varieties are better suited to high summer rainfall areas, or areas with soft finishes. Oceanic varieties produce a more even growth spread over the entire season, rather than being distinctly summer active (Continental type) or summer dormant (Mediterranean type). Varieties include Quantum II, Pastoral, Festival & Finesse Q; Phalaris: Drought hardy perennial grass. Varieties include: 1. prostrate types: Australian, Australian II (selected from Australian for higher seed yields, however DM production suffers as a result; 2. semi-erect habit, winter actives with low summer dormancy: Holdfast, Holdfast GT (no genetic relationship to Holdfast), Landmaster & SF Mate (a new early maturing type); 3. erect-habit, winter active with good summer dormancy: Atlas phalaris, specifically for western areas of the State. In general terms, the more winter active varieties produce greater amounts of DM/ha/year, however the Australian varieties have shown better persistence under extreme drought conditions. Cocksfoot: Perennial grass tolerant of acidic soils. Varieties include the more traditional Porto & Currie, as well as the more recent releases of Ambassador (shows poor frost tolerance), Greenly, Lazuly, Royale, Drover, Tekapo & Yarck. The Spanish cocksfoots, Uplands & Sendace, have shown excellent persistence under low rainfall environments, but reduced DM production (20% less productive than Greenly). As usual, a reduction in DM is often paid for persistence in perennial grasses. Brome grasses: Brome grasses are productive in autumn & winter, & even when in flower, provide high quality feed. The early maturing bromes (e.g. (Geronimo & Matua) are more productive, whilst the later flowering Exceltas & Atom produced less DM/ha over the year, but remained vegetative for longer. The early flowering types (Geronimo & Matua) exhibited better seed recruitment than later flowering types, like Atom & Exceltas. These varieties can also be effectively established by topdressing in autumn with fertiliser. They require rotational grazing to allow seedling recruitment every 1-2 years for persistence. Perennial ryegrass: There are numerous trials which have evaluated the DM production of perennial ryegrasses, all of which appear to produce a similar outcome. Apart from the older varieties, the annual DM production of the new lines of perennial ryegrass is often relatively similar. Of greater importance is the maturity of the ryegrass species for your area & the ‘ploidy’ i.e. tetrapolids vs diploids. Choose tetraploids for improved clover content & palatability (due to high sugar content) & diploids for improved competition against annual weeds. Chicory: sow on fertile deep soils for best results, though will tolerate acid soils down to 25% Aluminium. Superior weight gains in chicory in comparison to all other species, due to combination of high energy levels (13 MJ ME/kg DM) combined with low Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) levels. NDF is a measure of cell wall content. Hence, pasture mixes incorporating chicory encouraged (e.g. Lucerne, chicory, clover) for improved weight gains. Two main options are: (i) winter active: Punter, Balance, Chico, Commander & Grunter (due for release in 2013). More vegetative, with good winter activity & regeneration from seed. Winter actives can compete strongly against weeds/other pasture species & therefore can be established by topdressing with fertiliser in May/June. The winter actives have a higher crown & are more prone to overgrazing. Their persistence is therefore less than the winter dormants. However, Grunter reportedly has lower crown & improved persistence; (ii) winter dormant: Puna, Puna II, Grouse, Choice. Lower crowned varieties with less winter activity but improved persistence. These varieties will flower more readily over summer than the winter actives. Plantain: Improved persistence over chicory. The two main options are: (i) winter active: Endurance, Tonic. Early flowering varieties. Endurance has greater seed production & is 23 days later to mature than Tonic. Once seedset begins, quality reduces significantly (< 8 MJ ME/kg DM); (ii) winter dormant: Boston (for release 2013). Later flowering & summer active.
For further information on the latest pasture varieties, please do not hesitate to contact our consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey through Landmark Daniel Walker on 02 48 422405.

 

Novomber 2013

Flupropanate granules: another option for control of perennial grass weeds
 
Up until recently, the herbicide flupropanate was only available as a liquid formulation (commonly known under a number of trade names, including Taskforce, Tussock & Kennock). However a granular formulation of flupropanate is now available & providing encouraging results against perennial grass weeds, such as serrated tussock. Developed & manufactured in Orange, NSW, GP FLUPROPANATE GRANULAR HERBICIDE also has scope to control African Lovegrass & Chilean Needle Grass in the southern Tablelands. The label rate is 15 kg/ha, however lower label rates have been trialled which have produced excellent weed kill with reduced adverse effects on native & introduced perennial species. Further trial work is ongoing in this area.
 
The granular formulation is based on a hard clay carrier with flupropanate present both on the surface & absorbed into the clay core. This allows the granule to have a two phase release with the flupropanate being rapidly released from the surface of the granule combined with a slow release flupropanate from within the clay core. Flupropanate is very soluble in water which carries the chemical through the soil to the weed’s roots. The tussock grass weeds have a dense root system including many surface roots which allow them to take advantage of light rainfall during the drier months. The high density of flupropanate granules, coupled with the high solubility of flupropanate & the dense surface root systems results in efficient control of difficult to control perennial grass weeds, such as serrated tussock.
 
Why choose granules over liquids?
The granular formulation of flupropanate has the following advantages over liquid formulations:
·           Ability to target weeds under tree canopies & foliage;
·           100% of the active reaches the target;
·           Reduced drift;
·           Can be applied by hand, ground or air (preferably);
·           Available in convenient 750 g or 15 kg containers, as well as 20 kg & 500 kg bags.
 
For further information, please do not hesitate to contact our consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey through Landmark Daniel Walker on 02 48 422405.

 
 
 
 
 
 

Microlaena recovering beside dead tussock after application of flupropanate granules.

October 2013

BioAg fertiliser: a viable alternative option for topdressing pastures
BioAg, based at Narrandera in the Riverina, produces a range of rock Phosphate & liquid fertiliser products for the agricultural market. Of particular relevance to the Braidwood area are two products, BioAg Superb & BioAgPhos S10, which offer a viable, cost effective alternative to Single Superphosphate for topdressing pastures. The advantages of each of these products are outlined below:
BioAg Superb
Table 1: The comparison of Single Superphosphate and BioAg products

Nutrient Single Superphosphate BioAg Superb BioAgPhos S10
Phosphorus 8.8 8 11
Calcium 20 27 32
Sulphur 11 5 10

 
BioAg Superb is a blend of BioAgPhos (a reactive phosphate rock that has been treated with a microbial culture to increase solubility) & gypsum, resulting in an analysis comparable to Single Super (refer Table 1). Unlike conventional fertilisers, BioAg Superb provides an immediate & slowly available source of plant-available Phosphorus, as well as Sulphur for clover growth. It is not water soluble so it is not leached or ‘locked up’ as readily as conventional fertilisers. Around a third of the 8% Phosphorus in BioAg Superb is immediately available for plant use, whilst the remainder is slowly digested by soil microbes. This product is not granulated & needs to be applied using a belt spreader.
BioAgPhos S10
BioAgphos S10 comprises 90% BioAgPhos & 10% elemental Sulphur. However, the Sulphur is treated with microbes for rapid digestion & improved plant availability. As a result, this product is ideally suited to soils low in both Phosphorus & Sulphur. With the recent heavy rain in the Braidwood district, it reinforces the advantages of having a product containing Sulphur that will not readily leach, such as BioAgPhos S10.
Field trials demonstrate the value of rock phosphate products
Trial work on these rock phosphate products is encouraging – an 8 year trial conducted by NSW DPI near Orange showed a greater pasture response from using rock phosphate products compared to Single Super. These rock phosphate products work best under high rainfall, acid soil conditions – an ideal fit for the Braidwood area. Further work is currently being conducted on alternative fertilisers, including BioAg, by NSW DPI at Yass – initial results are encouraging, however the trial is expected to continue for another 3 years which will provide sound data on the performance of alternative fertilisers locally. For further information on these exciting new range of fertiliser products, call Roger Garnsey or Richard Walker at Landmark Daniel Walker.

October 2013

Summer cropping with forage sorghum

 
Summer cropping in the Braidwood area offers an opportunity to establish short term, highly productive C4 crops (such as forage sorghum & millet). These C4 grasses have a higher water use efficiency than the mainstream C3 grasses (such as phalaris, ryegrass & cocksfoot). Whilst Japanese millet has been used extensively on the Tablelands as a summer crop, forage sorghum should also be considered, as it offers several important advantages over millet. These include:
·           Capacity to be sown deeper than Japanese millet to access stored soil moisture;
·           Tolerant to drought conditions (root structure can develop over 2m in depth as compared to Japanese millets 30-50cm root depth);
·           Depending on varietal choice, forage sorghum can hold quality much longer than Japanese millets (ultra-late sorghums will not flower until day length is 12 hours and 20 minutes or some 160 days. Japanese millets will flower well under 100 days);
·           Improved yield security, with a general 50-100% higher yield achieved from forage sorghum than Japanese millets. Forage Sorghums are more efficient in their use of sunlight, carbon dioxide & water, resulting in 20-50% extra production in the same 4-6 month time frame compared to plants like ryegrass. Plants other than C4 don’t exhibit the capabilities or characteristics to produce increased yields like sorghum in the same time frame or from the same amount of water. As a guide, yields above 30 t DM/ha from forage sorghum have been achieved within 6 months compared to around 12 t DM/ha from Japanese millets.
·           Higher organic matter is produced underground (larger more intensive root structure), with strong root strength enabling deep penetration in many soil types;
·           Sorghum roots have a bio-fumigant effect helping to reduce certain soil pest like soil nematodes.
 
Growing forage sorghum:
When sowing a forage sorghum, there are a few basic rules to follow:
1.      Select paddocks with high fertility, good drainage & high soil water holding capability;
2.      Do not sow until soil temperatures reach a minimum of 16oC for strong, even germination
(November onwards);
3.      Plantingrates are similar to Japanese millets (i.e. 8-10 kg /ha), when intensive grazing or quality silage is to be produced;
4.      Sow into a weed free, loose soil bed to obtain high seed to soil contact;
5.      When choosing a forage sorghum variety, the high quality BMR range can achieve protein contents up to and above 18% and ME’s up to 10.5-11 ME, with less lignin (indigestible product) than non BMR forage sorghums;
6.      Forage sorghums can produce significant amounts of foarge, but need to be well feed. The following table provides a guide to what a typical forage sorghum crop (of say 15 t DM/ha) would remove in terms of soil nutrients. This nutrient demand needs to be considered when planning the fertilizer needs for the crop.

Table 1: Nutrient removal from forage sorghum.

Nutrient used per DM tonne produced Nitrogen
(kg/ha)
Phosphorus
(kg/ha)
Potassium
(kg/ha)
Sulphur
(kg/ha)
Zinc
(kg/ha)
Calcium
(kg/ha)
1 tonne DM/ha 15 2.7 11 0.8 0.21 3
15 tonne DM/ha 225 41 165 12 3.1 45
22 tonne DM/ha 350 60 250 17.6 4.6 66
25 tonne DM/ha 375 67 275 20 5.2 75

 
7.      Weeds can be effectively controlled in forage sorghum by use of pre-emergent herbicides, such as Dual Gold & Atrazine. However, in most instances, an effective knockdown herbicide in late spring is usually sufficient to control weeds in combination with the competition from vigorous forage sorghum crop growth;
8.      Ideally strip graze the crop to improve utilization. The earlier you can graze the sorghum (from 50cm upwards for the quick flowering types to 80cm for the ultra lates), the more opportunity the sorghum has to tiller out and produce more yield with potentially finer stems (depends largely on population);
9.      When cutting for hay or silage, optimum quality & quantity is achieved when the crop is no higher than
1-1.2 m;
10.  When cutting or grazing, leaving the stalks above 10 cm will increase the regrowth and prevent growing points from being damaged;
11.  Avoid grazing short, drought affected forage sorghums due to the increased chance of prussic acid poisoning.
 
For further information on forage sorghums, contact Landmark Daniel Walker to arrange an inspection of your paddock with their consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey.
 

September 2012

Increase in perennial grass weeds in southern Tablelands
Whilst there is plenty of emphasis on the control of broadleaf weeds in perennial pastures, the invasion of perennial grass weeds, such as serrated tussock & African lovegrass is an insidious problem that can be easily overlooked. These perennial grass weeds can be more devastating than annual broadleaf weeds, due to their competitive nature, persistence & ability to produce large amounts of seed which can persist for several years. Here are a few facts on each of these perennial grass weeds to consider.
Serrated tussock: When identifying serrated tussock, it can appear very similar to many native perennial grasses (e.g. poa species, Stipa/Spear grass). The main distinguishing feature of the plant is a white hairless ligule & a pale bleached root system. Plants are very difficult to pull from the ground due to the extensive root system. In addition, serrated tussock has the following characteristics:
·         Prolific seeder: A single mature plant can produce up to 100 000 seeds per year. Seeds can remain viable for up to 12-18 months;
·         It infests high & low productivity country;
·         It is difficult & costly to control, particularly on non-arable land supporting native perennial grasses;
·         It has a low feed value & is unpalatable to livestock.
African lovegrass: African lovegrass can be easily confused with other tussock-like grasses such as Poa tussock. Its distinguishing characteristic is the curley, slender leaves, as its botanical name suggests (Eragrostis curvula). In addition, African lovegrass has the following characteristics:
·         Seed germination declines with age; however some seed can remain viable for up to 17 years;
·         Can be nutritious for livestock when kept short & leafy;
·         It is difficult & costly to control, particularly on non-arable land supporting native perennial grasses;
·         Prefers low fertility acidic or sandy soil types.
Control options:
The control options for both of these perennial grass weeds are similar & include:
·         Cultivation/chipping;
·         Herbicide application: using selective herbicide (flupropanate, under various trade names including Tussock, Taskforce & Kennock). This herbicide will not damage introduced perennial grasses (e.g. phalaris, cocksfoot) or established clover, but will damage native grasses such as microlaena (weeping grass) & Danthonia (wallaby grass). This is not an issue when spot spraying, but can be more difficult in native perennial grasses when boom spraying. Flupropanate enters the plant through the leaves and roots but may take three months to have a noticeable effect and up to 18 months to kill the plant. Glyphosate is also effective at controlling these perennial grasses but is non-selective.;
·         Pasture management: to favour desirable species in the pasture, topdress regularly with fertilizer, such as Superphosphate & use strategic grazing to maintain 100% ground cover (as seedlings of serrated tussock & African lovegrass compete poorly in vigorous pastures).
·         Afforestation: radiate pines can be used as an effective monoculture to shade out these perennial grasses.
For further information on serrated tussock & African lovegrass, contact Landmark Daniel Walker to arrange an appointment with their consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey.

September 2013

Summer cropping with forage brassicas

Despite the winter cold, now is the time to start paddock preparations for summer cropping.  The most commonly used summer crop in the Braidwood area is forage brassica, and with good reason.  It is one of the least expensive options for growing high quality feed over the summer months (refer Table 1) as the quality of perennial pastures is declining.
 
Table 1: Feed value of summer crops.

Crop Protein
(%)
Digestibility (%) ME
(MJ ME/kg DM)
Cost (c/kg/DM) Cost
(c/MJ ME)
Green pasture 22 82 12 - -
Forage brassica 16 82 12 5.7 0.48
Turnips 12 88 13 4 0.31
Maize 8 71 10 6.5 0.65
Millet 10 65 9 8 0.89
Sorghum 1121 65 9 6.5 0.72
Barley 12 82 12 20 1.67
Hay 11 59 8 10 0.25
Silage 15 71 10 10 1.00

 
Paddock Preparation
Paddocks are often sown to forage brassicas as part of the cropping program to reduce weed problems and prepare paddocks for subsequent pasture sowing or cereal establishment. If possible avoid sowing brassicas on to westerly aspects as these do not hold as much moisture during the summer as other aspects. Sowing into paddocks which have a greater ability to retain moisture will ensure more water is available for crop growth during summer. Also avoid paddocks suffering from high soil acidity (soil pHCaCl < 4.60, Aluminium >5%).
 
Updated Varieties:
Forage brassicas can be divided into 5 main groups: forage rape, leafy turnips, kale, turnips & swedes. For the tablelands, forage rape & leafy turnips are the most appropriate choice, given our soils & climate. There are several commercial varieties available which vary in their time to grazing (or maturity period) as follows:
 
1.      Forage rape:has a stem with the growing point at the stem. Longer maturity of 8-14 weeks from sowing to grazing. Forage rapes have a distinct trait that when mature, the leaves turn from purple to a bronze colour. Grazing should not commence until maturity to avoid animal health issues. Varieties for this area include:
(i) Winfred: older variety (bred in 1977), with good regrowth after grazing & drought tolerance. 8-10 week maturity;
(ii) Greenland: more recent, higher yielding, taller variety, 10-12 week maturity;
(iii) Titan: more recent, intermediate height rape, bred for improved stock acceptance. 10-12 week maturity.;
(iv) Goliath: taller forage rape, bred for cattle grazing. 12-14 week maturity.
2.      Hybrid leafy turnip:does not have a stem, with the growing point close to the ground. Earlier maturity than forage rape (6-8 week ripening or maturity period from sowing to grazing). As for forage rape, grazing should not commence until maturity to avoid animal health issues. Varieties for this area include:
(i) Pasja & Hunter: rapid maturing forage brassicas with similar growth characteristics.
(ii) Pacer: higher yielding replacement for Pasja;
(iii) Pasja II: bred to reduce the on-set of bolting compared to Pasja.


 
Do’s & Don’t’s when Growing Forage Brassicas:
There are a few golden rules when growing forage brassicas.  These include:

 
For further information on forage brassicas, contact Landmark Daniel Walker to arrange an inspection of your paddock with their consulting agronomist, Roger Garnsey.